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Judicial Watch • JW letter to Interior Native Hawaiians 12/30/15

JW letter to Interior Native Hawaiians 12/30/15

JW letter to Interior Native Hawaiians 12/30/15

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Date Created:December 30, 2015

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Barunw (me (um ium
December 30, 2015
VIA EMAIL
The Honorable Sally lewell
Secretary
Department the Intenor
1549 Street,
Room 7223
Washlngmn, 20240 Procedures for Establishing Formal Governmeamtocovemmeut
Relationship with the Native Hawaiian Community, Fed. Reg. 5911332
(proposed Oct. 2015 (to becodirred (2.17.11. pt.
Dear Secretary lewell: behalf quudJmal Watch, 501(c)(3) educadonal orgamzadon, 511me the
fullumng comments concermng the proposed Procedures furBsLabhshmg Formal
Governmentrtorsovernment Relatmnshlp mth the Name Hawanan Commumty 1ssued the
Department ofthe Intenor October 2015
Iudjmal Watch nunrpamsan educadonal orgamzadon that seeks promote
transparency, aocountabdlty, mtcylty government and dchty the rule law Indiana]
Watch regularly les comments regardmg proposed rules means advance 1ts pubhc
mterest mlsslon dmng so, Iurhaal Watch seeks represent 1ts 400,000 acdve members,
well countless other American @1112an who support 115 311115 our op1mon, the proposed rule would create classes ofadzens based race the
State ofHawan, and would unconsdtudonal urge you not promulgate
Nauvc Hawanans are not federally rccuynud tnbe Nathcr Cungcss nor the
Bxecudve Branch has ever rccuynud Nadve Hawanans tube w1th the legal status held
those suvcrcjyls fact, the federal government has dehberately not recogmzed Nadve
Hawanans tube, athcrby cungcssmnal statute execudve actmn See, leg (reguladon promulgated 197g for the purpose acknowledgtng Ammcan
1ndlan Tubes excludes Nadve Hawanans), 1ndlan Reorgamzadon A5125 A79 (does not
mcludc Nauvc Hawanans) obo Kahawmobm Norton, 336 1271, 1273774, 1201 (9111
C1: 2004)(nm1ng Nadve Hawanans exclusmn from Part 03, the 1ndlan Rcurgamzatmn Act and
the 1ndlan SclfrDctcrcmnatmn and Bducatmn Assjstancc 1m) 120213575199
121, 10071: 611?,
vcmnwuc mg, vwv
Hon ally lewell
December 30, 2015 reversal ofthe United States longstanding position, the Department now proposes
that Native Hawaiians may ratify constitution (or other document) establishing Native
Hawaiian government, and that that governmentcould then seelr formal relationship with the
United States The proposed procedure would constitutionally infirm several respects
The Proposed Regulations Would Sanction Unlawful Racial Discrimination.
Under its proposed rule, the Department ofthe Interim seelrs create process which
Native Hawaiians would establish new government and then seelr formal guvcmmcntrtu
government relationship with the United States The process described the Departments
regulations racially discriminatory and would violate the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendment
rights ofHawaiian citizens
The proposed regulations imagine that the organization Native Hawaiian entity will
talre place two stages The first stage involves the dxa zlng ofa governing documen for the
planned entity, meaning written document constitution) embodying its fundamental
and organic law Se: Fed Reg sglzbzz (Oct 1,2015) (to codified 50),
proposed St: (defining governing document) and st: (describing necessary
elements ofthat document) The regulations require that the process for dramng the governing
document must based mamngul input from representative segments the Native
Hawaiian community and reflect[] the will ofthe Native Hawaiian community 1.1
The regulations not otherwise specify the process which this document would come
exist
The second stage clearly requires racially restricted election The proposed regulations
provide for mandatory ratification referendum whatever governing documents may
created the Native Hawaiian community Se: proposed (describing
ratification rcfcrcndum) The regulations further stipulate that such referendum must open all persons who were verified satisfying the definition ofa Native Hawaiian, but must not
include the vote tallies votes cast persons who were not Native Hawaiians Froposed lA(bl(sl(iiil and (iv) The regulations define aNative Hawaiians aUS citizen
who [d]escendant ofthe abuugnal people who, prior 1773, occupied and exercised
sovereignty the area that now constitutes the State Hawaii Proposed
The regulations require that such ancestry verified way that rational and reliable, and
set forth particular ways which this may accomplished, including means Slater
certified voter roll ofNative Hawaiians 1.1 12(3), 0:)
These regulations are plainly defective that they require racially discriminatory
election, which boh inequitable and certain invalidated future legal challenge
Indeed, the ancestry requirement set forth the proposed regulations virtually identical
ancestry requirements that have lwlt: been cnjmncd the Supreme Court the context
electlunsimust recently Just few weelrs ago worth recounting the checlrered legal history
ofthe racial criterion incorporated the Department proposed rule minim
siqr
Hon ally Jewell
December 30, 2015 Rx: Cayemno, 523 A95, 499 (2000), the plalntlffcha cngcd provlslon the
Hawanan Cons that llmtted the ght vote elec ons for the board ofthe
Hawanan Affalrs The statute lssue Rx: restncted the ght vote such elec
those who were Hawanan, ned dcsccndant ofthe aboumnal peoples lnhabltlng the
Hawanan Islands which exermsed soverergnty and subslstcd the Hawanan Islands 1773,
and which peoples thcrca have contmued rcsldc Hawan 1.1 509
Thls provlslon ubvmusly lmphcatcd the eenth Amendment, whlch pmvldcs that [t]hc
nght ufcltluns ofthe Unltcd States vote shallnot dcmcd abndged the Unltcd States
orby any state account ofrace [or] color Const amend XV, The Supreme Court
observed that
The dcslgn ofthe Amendment reaf the cquahty races
the most baslc level the democra process, the cxcrclsc ofthe franchlsc Fundamental purpose and effect and self
execu opera on, the Amendment prohlblts all provlslons
dcnylng abudglng the Vutlng franchlsc any cmun class zens the bans ofrace
1.1 511712 The Supreme Court then found that Hawa use ancestry rcqulrcmcnt was pmxy for race (to 514), and compared other lnvalld hmtatmns the ght vote
[.1 512714 (clung Guwn Umzstster, 233 347, 363 (1915) (Oklahomas
grandfather clause), Smut Allwnghl, 321 A69 (1944) and Terry Am, 345 A61
(1953) (allwhtte pnmary (23555)) cnjmnlng the use that rcqulrcmcnt Vlulatmn ofthe eenth Amendment, the Court noted that
The ancestral mqulry mandated the state lmphcatcs the same
grave concerns dassl catmn spemfyang pamcular race
name One the punclpal reasons race treated forbldden
classl catmn that demeans the Ellynty and wunh person Judged ancestry lnstcad ofby his her own ment and
csscntlal quahtlcs lnqutry lnto ancestral hncs not cunslstcnt
Wlth respect based the umque personahty each ofus possesses, respect the Cons ltsdf secures lts concern for persons
and zens
1.1 at517
Barher this month, the Supreme Court agaln enjmncd elec based essen ally the
same ancestry rcqulrcmcnt struck down Rx: The statute lssue this was Act 195,
passed the Hawanlcglslaturc ln2011 HAW REV STAT [UHrl slug That statute
estabhshed the Hawanan Role Cummissmn (NHRC) and tasked Wlth cumplhng llst
those who quahfy Natlvc Hawanan,wh1ch ned [a]n lnrhvldual who
descendant the abuuglnal peoples who, pnor 1773, oocupled and cxcrclscd suvcrclgnty 1Mv 700:,
Hnn ally Jewell
December 30, 2015
the Hawaaaanaslands,the areathatnnw cnnstatutes the State waawan REV STAT
101173830) was antended that thnse Nataye Hawaaaans remstered the NHRC wnuld permatted parucapate elecunn delegates Natlvc Hawaaaan cunvcntmn, whach governance
dncuments fur Nataye Hawaaaan enuty wnuld dra Such dncuments were then
submatted rataracaunn rcfcrcndum lake the nne descrabed the Departments prnpnsed
regulatanns, and apprnyed urrcjcctcd thnse same racequala ynters Cnnsastent wath thas
scheme, the NHRC nnly remstered persnn ats rnll arhe she cnuld demnnstrate Natlvc
Hawaaaan ancestry Mnrenyer, pntenual remstrants were alsn screened for thear pnlatacal vaews: regaster nnlane wath the NHRC, andayaduals had Lch unrelanquashed snyerergnty
the Natlvc Hawaaaan penple See httprzllwww kanaan: Wainals/remsternaw (dcscub1ng
remstraunn rcqmrcmcnts) respnnse legal challenge under the Fnurteenth and runeenth Amendments, the
Supreme Cnurt assued emergency mjunctmn stnp the cnunung wfba uts thas elecunn,
See Alamv sze n/chmt, 577 ,,,2u1s Lcms7 (Dec 21:15) (Order attached Bxh The actann the Supreme Cnurt tuukm thas case ancredably rare See Supreme
Cow mean anwe chmm Ezernnn Vol: CowL The Assncaated Press, Dec 21:15,
ayaalable http lrbgflaryj; _(nutlng the very unusual1n]unctmn halung the cnuntang 17f
ballnts fulluwmg daemon) emergency mjunctmn cxuaurrhnary remedy, and
warranted cases anynlyang the ammanent and clear yanlatann ghts See Lnrm Towruemt,
Ass 13171, 13175 (1935) (Kennedy, ,an chambcrs) (cnjmmng elecunn where applacants
establashed lakely yanlaunn Vutlng Raghts Act) Such Tnjunctmn nnly assued upnn the
satasracunn nne ntthe mnst demandang standards knuwn law, where applacants
raght relaeras nrhsputably clear amp ClllzeruforReronnbl: Energy, the Nnrzem
Regubzlory Cnmn, 479 1312 (1936) (Scalaa, ,an chambers) (qunung Fuhrmzn
Sthuz er, 429 132s, 1326 (ms) (Marshall, chambers); 11th the decasann Rx: and the recent mjunctmn assued MW, wnuld
astnnashang the Department the Tnteranr nnw apprnyed rule ancnrpnraung the same race
based restractann the context 17f elecnnn wnuld Just cxuaurrhnary the Department
chnse recngnaze use the racaally exclusjvc electnral prncess anauated Hawans Act 195
the basas fur urgamung Natlvc Hawaaaan enuty parucular, the Supreme Cnurts emergency
mjunamn shnuld cautmn any prudent publac mal quesunn the wasdnm nruslng Hawans
taanted regastraunn rnll for any admanastrauye purpnse whatsneyer urge ynu and the
admanastraunn nnt ansert ynurselyes antn pnlatacal mnyement that wnuld depraye cauzens
the raght vutciand ulumately davade Lhcmiun the basls ufracc The Departments
rccugntmn nrthe results such elecunn wnuld nnt nnly cnndnne, but ansututannalaze, racaal
dascramanaunn wnuld nnt nnly unlawful, wnuld uncnnscannable fur the Department
the Tnteranr use thas clectmniur any prncess that slmalarly denaes mtazens the raght ynte
because nrthear lack parucular bluudhncitu adyance admanastrataye agenda
Iudamal Watch acung cnunsel the plamnffs thas lawsuat 1Mv
sand 700:,
Hnn ally Jewell
December 30, 2015
Asade rrnm the ccnth Amendment, Hawaaas prncess wfcstabhshlng Nataye
Hawaaaan cnnyenunn alsn wnuld yanlate the Fnurteenth Amendment Under the Equal
l>rntectann clause, all raual classl catmns ampnsed gnyernment must analyzed
revaewang cnurt under stuct scruuny Guam Bollmger, 539 ms, 326 (2003) (utatann
nmattedl Thls means that such dassl catluns are cnnsutuunnal nnly lthcy are narrnwly
taalnred funhcrcumpclhng gnyernmental anterests 1.1 The electnral prncess that rubber
stamped the Departments prnpnsed rule cannnt sausry thas standard anaual matter, there are seunus questanns whether the establashment nra
snyereagn Nataye Hawaaaan gnyernment wnuld quahfy cumpclhng state anterest Hnweyer,
eyen cnurt accepted thas dubanus and nnyel premase, the means uulazed Hawaaa (and
least amplamtly apprnyed the Departments prnpnsed regulaunnl are nnt narrnwly taalnred
achaeye that anterest, fur three reasnns varst, 33% quhusc the NHRC ynterrnll remstered
thrnugn the Cnmmassanns websate, whach means that they had pnsatayely rmthclr bchcfln
the unrchnqmshcd suvcrclylty the Name Hawaaaan penple valteung the cnmmunaty
1nd1gcm7us penple through 1dcu1uglcal latmus test nnt necessary cnnduct electann,
and all but guarantees that nnly thnse persnns whn adhere that 1dculugy wall remster ynte
That prncess cannnt used represent cnmmunaty the cnntrary, packs and chnnses
nnly certaan raynred pnrtanns cxlsung, true cnmmunaty
Secnnd, the remaanang 62% persnns the NHRC rnll were transferred there rrnm
nther guvcmmcntal lasts waatlvc Hawaaaans, wathnut thear puurknuwlcdgc agccmcnt
Fnrcably rcglstcung the members 1nd1gcnuus cnmmunaty nnt lnmcal apprnpuate wafy gauge thear yaews regardang thear nwn cnmmunaty, sclfrdctcnmnauun, any nther matter practacal matter, many quhusc rcglstcrcd may never learn nrthe fact that they are
remstered, whale thnse whn learn that they were rnrubly ancluded wathnut adyance nntace
cnnsent may object thatbasas, and refuse panampate
Thlrd, the an: drnp ufbluud rule emplnyed the utterly arbatrary
lusuce Breyer npaned the, tubal membershap terms pnssable ancestnr nut
500 gnes well beynnd any reasnnable lamat was nnt tube, but rather the State ufHawazu,
that created thas mtmn and nnt lake any actual membershap classaracaunn created
any actual tube 523 527 (Breyer, ,cuncurnng the result) realcnmmunaty can deraned such tenunus hnk
Such ynter regastraunn prncess nnt narrnwly taalnred means achaeye any anterest
pcnalmng Nataye Hawaaaans Hawaaa electnral prncess cannnt sausry stuct scruuny, and
therernre yanlates the Fnurteenth Amendment Thas ynter regastraunn prncess alsn yanlates the Flrst Amendment because cnmpelled
anynluntary remstraunn sss Enrkzsy Amentmx Comlllullorml law Foundnllon, 525 132
(1999) vmv
sand
Hon ally Jewell
December 30, 2015 sum the Dcpanmcntrappmvcd process used create Nauve Hawanan government
would amount racebased dlscucmnatlun and classl catmn pmh yltcd the Fourteenth and
fteenth Amendments Thas process lltcra demes the ught vote utrzens based that
race The Bxecuuve Branch should not sanctmn, engage 1n, permat racral dascumanauon and
voter dasenfranchrsement usmg rccugnung the results any electron that quah voters thls mega] manner
The Department OfThe Interior Lad: Constitutional Authority Recognize mix
Where Congress Has Refused So.
The Departments proposal facdlltatc the reestabhshment ofa furmalguvcmmcntrtm
government relauonshap wth the Nauve Hawanan cummumty attempt yam tubal
status Nauve Hawauans Lhmugh the Bxecuuve Branchs adcmmstratwc process Thls
cunmtutlunally unsound, and Vlulatcs scparauunrwfrpuwcrs punuples The fact that the
Departmenthas lssucd such proposal lndlcates that confused about how the Unltcd States
lawfully recugnus tubes, that the Bxecuuve Branch has dctcrmmcd overude the
Congress and slmply crrcumvent Arucle pusslbly both Regardless, the proposed regulatory
actmn unlawful
Congress vested wth the authouty regulate commerce wlth Indlan tubes
Const art The Supreme Court has descubed Congresss authouty wlth respect Indlan
tubes p1cnary Morrorr Manta AHUS 535, 551752 The plenary power Cungcss deal wth the speual problems wflndlans drawn both cxphcl and Tmph from the
Consutuuon rtselfl, see also Norrorr, 336 1271 1276 Cungrcss has the power, both
dlrectly and delegauon the Presldcnt, estabhsh the cuteua for rccugnung Lube)
(clung ManLNulLon UmmtSmlef Depr o/Irrrerror,255 342, 345 (7th clr 2001))
Moreover, whllc the federal government may recugnzz Indlan tubes, does not (real: them
See A79 See obo Declaratlun Gall Heuot, dated October 2015 (attached
Bxhlbltz), Clvllkights Commassroners Letter ofSept 16, 2013 (attached Bxhlblt 3), Senators letter Aug 2014 (attached Bxhlblt wunh noung that the Atom plalntlffs also have asserted clalms under (1)111: federal Voung
Rrghts Act 1965, and (2)111: vlrst Amendment, for Vlcwpmnt dascumanauon because many
remstrants were forced parucular statement, and for compelled speech because ofthe
aforemenuoned compulsory rcglsuatlun Whllc these clazlms have yet adjurhcatcd, they
rarse seuous lssucs and are potenual, 1ndcpcndcnt grounds for lnvahdaung any process mvulvlng
the NHRC roll these authouues dascuss, one ofthe lnsupcrablc obstacles rccugnung Nauve
Hawanan cntlty that Hawan had pulyglut,mu1ucultural, and modern souety before ever
became Umted States terutory state There not, then, the land ofconunuous, lnsular,
cuhcslvc cummumty ordanauly rcqulrcd tubal enuty See Bxhlblt 1,1 Bxhlblt 1,2,
ree aim The mandatory cuteua for recugntmn aflnrhan tube lncludc berng
ldcnn Ameucan Indlan enuty substanually conunuous basls 51m: 191m, havlng mam: 700:,
Hon ally Jewell
December 30, 2015
The tubes that are federally recogmzed were gamed that status process set forth
cungcssmnal statute, not atcral execuuye actlon Soc A61 seq nbo
Norton, 306 1273774(d15cu551ng hzlstury uflnrhan Reorgamzauon Act, and creatlun
Ameucan Indlan Puhcy Reuew Commasslonl Thus, there emsung pathway under federal
law whlch Nauye Hawanans Imght become federally rccuynud tube Wlthuut proper
statutory authouzauon Cungcss, regulatory scheme promulgated execuuye agency
grant tubal status Name Hawanans would Vlulatc fundamental scparatmnrufrpuwcrs
punclplcs Several members ofthe Umted States Senate haye wutten you express that
concern: Cunycsshasrcpcatcdlyrcfuscdtu adopt lemslauon that would recogmze aNatlvc
Hawanan government reestabhsh adcmmsuauvc path for dmng such, any atcral
efforts the Department move forward admanastrauyely are unlawful Bxhlblt
Bxhlblt
Dcspltc tlus consutuuonal hurdle, the Department has forged ahead lts effortto yam
tubal status Name Hawanans through regulatory acuon The Departments explanauon the
legahty wflts procedure, set forth lts responses comments the ANPRM,15 blzarre
attempt Justify ths andrrun around Congress Flrst, the Department acknowledges that
Congress has plenary power deal W1Lh Inman tubes, but slmultancuusly dlsrcgards the fact
that Congress repeatedly has refused grant tubal status Name Hawanans Not only does
the Department faal acknuwlcdgc that fact, twlsts luglc further damn that Cungcss has
already exerused [lts] plenary power recogmze Name Hawanans[ Fed Reg 59121
Thls assemon dlsconnected from rcahty wcnrknuwn that Senator Akaka waawan spent dozen years attemptlng push the
Natlvc Hawanan Guvcmmcnt Reorgamzauon Act, popularly known the Akaka B111,
Lhmugh Congress one form another The Akaka B111 would have gamed Nauye Hawanans pathway federal tubal status, but each attempt pass the blll ulumately fallcd See,
lohn rules, ssnms Bzorkr 5111 Convoy Spetml szu foanwmwu, New York Tlmcs, lune
2006, Jams Magtn, Huwmmnr wstgn apnonr NunyoSwm Btzzsmb, New York Tlmcs,
lune 11, 2006, Brhtuual, Aloha Segregnllon, Wall Street Journal, Dec 17, 2009, Gall Heuot and
Peter Kirsanuw, OprBd Congveu Tnsr Break Hnwml Two, Wall Street Iwumal, Feb 20,
2010
Cnyen Congress repeated, wellrpubllazcd rcjccnuns the Akaka B111, 1115 puthng
that the Department the lnteuor takes the tmn that Cungcss has already exerused [lts]
plenary power recogmze Nauye Hawanans Under tlus rcvlslumst Vcrsmn ufhlstury, the
Department now tells the puch that slmply proposes better lmplement [the government prcdmlunant pomon ofthe pctmumng guupcm51 dasunct cummumty from hlstuucal
umes unul the present, and ma:1ntaln[1ng] pulltlcal ucncc authouty oyer lts members autonomous enuty from hlstuncalumcs unul the present [B]y lts terms, the Inman Reorgamzauon Act dld not mcludc any name Hawanan group
Norton, 306 at12s0 (0v
sync 700:,
Hnn ally lewell
December 39, 2915
relatannshap wath nauve cnmmunaty that has already been recngnazed Cungcss Fed
Reg 9121
Despate ats many references speclal pnlatacal and trust relaunnshap between the
Unated States and Nauve Hawaaaans, the fact remaans that the federal gnvernment has never
rccuynud Nauve Hawaaaans snvereagn enuty lalre nther lndaan tubes Int had, there
would have been need for the Ahaha The Departments claamthat Cnngress has
already rccuynud Nauve Hawaaaans tube bnth fact and reasnn Lfthat the case,
nne must wnnder: what exauly was the pnant nfthe Akaka B1117 And why dad members
Cnngress spend pnlatacal energy fnr mnre than decade tryang pass at7 Cungcss has
already exercased [ats] plenary pnwer recngnaze Nauve Hawaaaans, the Department
cnntends, then why dad Cungcss declane pass the Akaka Ball, nnt nnce, but repeatedly7 The
Departments prnpnsal based ctmn and agnnres the nbvanus: Native Hawaiians have
not been granted federal tribal status because Congress does not support the effort The Departments prnpnsed rule transparent attempt amplement the faaled Akaka Ball
Lhmugh executave acunn Wathnut statutnry authnuzatann, wnuld unlawful prnmulgate
thas regulaunn case has ever held that special trust relaunnshap status can take the place actual, cnngressannal recugntmn lndaan tube Justify vnung restucunns based
race Nevertheless, the Department maantaans that the prnpnsed regulaunn lawful because
Cnngress has rccuynud Nauve Hawaaaans enacung statutes that prnvade speclal Federal
prngrams and servaces them Fed Reg 59123 Lfthat the basas fnr gaming tubal
status, the Department shnuld prepared recngnaze several mnre suvcragl naunns the
Unated States addaunn Nauve Hawaaaans, Cungcss has enacted statutes prnvadang specaal
servaces fnr number nther guups Shnuld thnse guups alsn granted federal tubal status7
Fnr example, the Appalachaan Regannal Develnpment Act uf1965 created the Appalachaan
Remnnal Cnmmassann (ARC) prnvade federal fundang fnr vauety servaces the penple
Appalachaa Frendents lnhn Kennedy and Lyndnn lnhnsnn snught target federal aad and
suppnrt fnr ecnnnmac develnpment the pnverty7stuc1ren regann, whach deraned thnse whn
rende anWestVarganaa and partacularcnunues acrnss twelve nther states SeeAuUS 1993, Cnngress dad pass what cnmmnnly 1rnnwn the Apulugy Resnlutann, expressang
regal fnr the treatment the Kangdnm anawaaa and suppnrt nfrecnncdaatann effnrts See
Pub 1937159, 1177 Stat 1513 Hnwever, the Supreme Cnurt has held that [t]hc Apnlngy
Resnluunn reveals andacatann much less clcar and mamfcst nne that Cnngress antended amend repeal the States ghts and nblagaunns under the Admassann Act (nr any nther
federallaw) Hnwml 0171 oanwmm nm, 556115 163, 175776 (2999) Indeed, the DOI acunns prnpnsang the NPRM amnunt attempt end7nan Cungcss effnrt whach bears clnse resemblance the Bxecutave Branchs stmalar recent attempt
carcumvent Cnngress cnnsutuunnal authnuty nver the ammagratann laws, attempt whach has
sance been cnjmncd Dastuct Cnurt Texas Texm 1mm 3mm, Case 137147254,
Feb 16, 2915 (SD Tex ofmluntllon dented, 15740233, May 26, 2915 (5111 Car)
sand 700:,
Hon ally Jewell
December 30, 2015
145177 The ARC currently funds hundreds projects that ccyer mde spectrum wahc
cummumtys needs: h1ghways and transpunauun,1nfrastmcmrc, health, cducatmn,buslncss and
trade deyelcpment, and energy are Just scme wahc areas ldcnu fcr 31d See, cg,
Appalachlan chlunal ccmmasslcn ngam Areas, ava ablc
The federalguvcmmcnt has alsc acted speaflcally prcylde bene Afncan
Ameucans Fur example, dyer century agu, the seccnd Mcrnll Act 1391: estabhshed the
blacklandrgrant unlyerslues Sec 321 slnce then, Hastcucally Black cclleges and
Umvcrsmcs (lEEcUsl haye recedyed federal suppcrt and funrhng frcm ccngress See,
Hglghchducauun Act 1965,1 3329, H.1ghcr Educaucn Oppunumty Act cf21lus,
Pub 1137315 The Execuuye Eranch alsctargetsfederal suppcrt fcrAfncan Ameucans
Lhmugh prcgrams such the Whltc chse lruuauye Educaucnal Excellence fcr Afncan
Amencans, Exec Order, July 26, 21:12, and the Ercthers Keeper lruuauye, Presldcnts
Memcrandum Creaung and Expandlng Ladders 17f Oppunumty fcr Ecys and Ycung Men
cclcr, Feb 27, 201A) Se: nbo Exec Order 12321: (1931) (Whltc chse Immatwc
Hastcncally Black cclleges and Umvcrsmcs), Exec Order 12677 (1939) (Presldcntlal Advlsury
Ecard Hastcncally Black cclleges and Umvcrsmcs)
Crlvcn thls darected, spemahzed suppcrt fcr Afncan Ameucans guup, cculd they
seektnbal status hulrhng elecucn whlch cnly perscns whc have the rcqmmc Afncan
Amencan blccd are pctmmcd vmc7 Cungrcss has created cummssmn fund prcgrams fur
the pecple wappalachla, has Cungcss Lhcrcfurc :ccuynudd1 HAppalachlans held
elecucn whlch cnly perscns pamcular ancestry cculd ycte, and then fcrmed the-r cwn
gcyernment, wwuld the Department wahc lnteucr promulgate regulaucns rccuynu that
gcyernment suvcrcjgn enuty7 The suggestion may seem prepcstercus, but the prcpcsed
rcgulatluns ccntemplate that the federal gcyernment can rccuynu such tube based race
and hzlstury cftargeted federal bene and pmgams prcmulgated, ths admanastraucn
wwuld ccndcne the dmslcn waawanan mtlzens based thelr race, and set dangerous
preceden fcr further racebased dlvlsluns cther guups cther states Se: Bxhlln12,i
Conclusion.
The prcpcsed rule radvlscd attempt recuynzz gmup wflnrhvlduals
Lube based sclely thelr race and wthwut authcnzaucn Cungrcss The Department wahc
lnteucr may fcrce the terms wahc Akaka B111 the cmuns waawan Cungrcss has
spccl dcchncd enact that lcglslatmn Such pclatlcal, execuuye uvcncach wwuld
unlawfully lntrudc Cunycsss authcnty under Amcle Wursc,1t wuuld allcw Hawanan
cluzens dasenfranchlsed the must baslc leyel wahc demccrauc process because thelr
race Thls fundamentally cdds mth the ccnsutuucn and the prmcctmns secures far all
perscns, regardless wfrao: The prcpcsed rule, lfenacted, wuuld peth the classl catmn and,
ulumately, the scycgatmn Amencan cluzens based race Thls wuuld set dangercus
precedent Hismry has shcwn hcw damamng such gcyernmentsancucned dlvlsluns, and the
mmdset that creates them, can The cluzens ufHawan and the Umted States mnwm
qqzz 5am {mu
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waived taking mkwmd Nu}! Aaw-bmcd dimim and oh. when, sumgly mg:
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Exhibit
(ORDER LIST: 577 ms.)
wEDNEsDAv, DECEMBER 2on
oRDER PENDING oisE
JSASSJ ARINA, KELI AL. HAWAII, AL.
Tne apoiitstion Fur injunttion oending sooeiiste review
presented Justite Rennedy and nin reterred tne (curt
granted. Respondents are enjoined From tounting tne osiiots Cast
in, and EertiFying tne winners ot, tne eiettion destrioed tne
sooiitstion, pending tinsi disoosition tne sooesi tne
United States Court Appesis Fur tne Rintn cirtuit.
Justite cinsourg, Justite areyer, Justite Sutumayur, and
Justice Kzgzn deny tne aooiitation.
Exhibit
Case lSrCVrOOEZZrJMSrBMK Document 916 Wed 10/09/15 Page Page
1130 THL UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
FOR THE DISTRICT HAWAII
KLLIL AKIN cm].
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1133
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